Библиотека курортолога«МАТЕРИАЛЫ Международного научного конгресса и 62-й сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи Всемирной Федерации Водолечения и Климатолечения (ФЕМТЕК)» → BALNEOLOGY: THE BASIC ACHIEVEMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS


Razumov A.N.

The Russian Scientific Centre for Restorative and Resort Medicine, Moscow, Russia


One of achievements of modern medicine can consider wide and active use in the treatment-and-prophylactic and rehabilitation purposes of natural factors. It became possible thanks to the big possibilities of action of natural factors as medical-improving means, their feature and even advantage in comparison with other therapeutic means and methods.


- universality of action that defines wide indications to their appointment;
- normalizing character of action that their application allows at a various initial condition of an organism and specific features of a current of disease;
- absence, as a rule, at their appointment of toxic and allergic reactions, collateral action;
- long after action of the balneology course which can last from several weeks till 4-6 months;
- good compatibility with all medical means, opening unlimited possibilities for realization of a principle of integrated approach of therapy and rehabilitation;
- prevalence and comparative cheapness.
Today balneology has rather extensive and various on physical properties, the mechanism of action and medical application by a spectrum natural and it is artificial the prepared physical factors. This rich arsenal is used in several basic directions:

- The most widespread is application of balneal factors in complex therapy of patients with various diseases. For modern balneology expansion of indications, more and more early appointment, narrowing of contra-indications is characteristic. Efficiency of action balneo therapeutic factors depends on an applied technique, localization, a kind and an influence dosage. And the main thing from character of pathological process, its stage and current specific features. The differentiated approach to appointment of these factors that is accessible to only highly skilled doctor is exclusively important. Only at such approach and use of parameters of influence adequate to possibilities of an organism of the patient, balneal factors will promote development of processes of restoration, indemnification or adaptation — the basic processes sanogenesis.
- Other important direction of use balneo factors — rehabilitation. Physical therapy and its principles should take a predominating place in medical rehabilitation of patients and invalids as it is known, that the concept of rehabilitation has developed from ideas of physical medicine which was added with positions of social hygiene, pedagogic, psychology, sociology, closely being weaved on the difficult way.
- Last years one more direction of use of natural medical factors — restorative medicine actively develops. Feature of restorative medicine is maintenance of health of the healthy person in work, study and sports by diagnostics of level of health, definition of the forecast of its decrease and restoration by means of improving technologies and improvement of vital circle of the person. For the decision of the major problems of restorative medicine with success many are used balneo factors.
Now new directions of use of natural medical factors are formed. For example:

— all of them are more often used for preventive maintenance and correction immunology frustration for the account immuno modulating properties;

— collects more and more data about essential influence of medical physical factors on action of other medical means that allows to speak about therapeutic interferences. Already today data on possibility of their use for increase of activity of medicines, reduction of their collateral action, management of pharmacokinetics and pharmaco dynamics have practical value;

— natural physical factors, hydrotherapy methods are widely used in spa — and wellness the industries;

Among the basic scientific achievements received last decades in Russia, allowing improving techniques of application of mineral waters and a medical dirt it is necessary to note the following:

— working out of theoretical bases and the general representations about mechanisms of primary action and absorption balneo factors;

— researches on such problems, as a dose-effect, specificity of action of mineral waters, the time organization balneo therapy, a combination and a combination balneo factors;

— definition of value of concentration of the basic components of mineral waters in efficiency of application;

— studying of feature of action balneo factors at a different pathology;

— working out of new techniques balneo therapies (mineral waters at ischemic illness of heart with infringement of a warm rhythm, a diabetes, a chronic bronchitis, etc.); peloyd therapy at a cardiovascular pathology (hypertensive illness, discirculation an encephalopathy);

— a scientific substantiation of application «prolonged» (in 2-3 months) balneo therapy;

— studying of the new parties of action of drinking mineral waters (formation of urgent and long-term adaptive reactions, a scientific substantiation of drinking treatment at a metabolic syndrome, a diabetes, hypertensive illness, in oncology, etc.);

— studying of questions of use in a combination balneo — and pharmacotherapy for the purpose of increase of efficiency of treatment, reduction of doses of medicines, resistance overcoming to them etc.;

— creation new modern hi-tech balneo therapeutic devices and complexes.

Created on the basis of scientific achievements of medical balneology therapeutic technologies predetermine rendering possibility influences on many important pathogenetic links of development and progressing of various diseases and conditions and expediency of their application for preventive maintenance, treatments and rehabilitations.

Among significant achievements balneotherapies in the world it is necessary to note:

— Successful experience of treatment of skin diseases: hot thermal waters in resort Cusatsu (Japan), highly concentrated (320 g/l) hydrochloric water of the Dead Sea in which basis bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects of used factors lay.

— Good results of application balneo factors in treatment and rehabilitation of patients with inflammatory and not inflammatory diseases of bone-muscular system on the Dead Sea, on a resort Bud Hofgajsten (Austria), Sent-nectar, Vichy (France) with application of thermal mineral waters, mud applications, carbonic waters are received. At the heart of medical action of the specified factors, according to various researches (mostly uncontrollable) lay anti-inflammatory effects.

Prospects of scientific researches in area balnetherapy:

- It is known, that scientifically proved way of reception of authentic results is carrying out of controllable clinical researches. At their carrying out a quality monitoring is used, allowing receiving the most objective results: randomization, comparative researches, and blind researches. The size of sample, definition of correct final points besides, matters. Unfortunately to researches in the field of balneology difficulties are specific at blinding of research, the organization of groups of comparison. Often they are spent on not numerous samples. Therefore carrying out large researches by principles of the demonstrative medicine which gold standard, controllable, double blind research is necessary.
- Not less important problem, is optimization of the known methods which theoretical bases have been developed in the XX-th century. As optimization understand a choice of parameters, conditions and ways of application balneo the factors providing the maximum (optimum) therapeutic result. Till now were mainly developed parametrical and optimization. Apparently, for optimization balneo therapeutic influences parameters of biorhythms of an organism can be used.
- The major link in construction of the theory of balneology is decoding of biophysical mechanisms of absorption and primary effects of action balneo factors. The primary physical and chemical processes occurring at interaction of physical factors with biological systems, consider mechanisms of transformation of physical energy in biologically expedient reaction directed on restoration of a homeostasis and urgent adaptation of an organism. The special attention should be given search of acceptors (targets) of action balneo factors. For efficiency increase balneo therapies the establishment of sensitivity of various fabrics of an organism to various factors balneo — and hydrotherapies as it is normal is important, and at a pathology.

- The problem of a therapeutic interference (interference) of balneal, physical factors and medicines should become a subject of active researches. It to allow not optimize complex therapy, but also will promote a substantiation and working out new complex methods of balneo therapy.

For example, aqua magneto therapy — the new direction of restorative medicine based on simultaneous use with the medical and preventive purposes of a magneto therapy and hydrotherapy. At the heart of physiological and medical action aqua magneto therapy activization of solutions and the liquids which are exposed to influence of magnetic fields which leads to qualitative change of the last lays magneto hydrodynamic.

Magneto hydrodynamic forces in such liquids cause the physical and chemical reactions capable effectively to influence metabolic and exchange reactions in an organism, to stimulate, improve mechanisms of regulation of blood circulation, to make active strengthening and adaptations-protective physiological processes in a body of the person. Simultaneously liquids, being a good conductor of magnetic fields, allow strengthening qualitatively physiological and medical action of a pulse low-frequency magneto therapy. The technology is patented, is unique and has no analogues in the world.

It is known, that the important role in realization of action of physical methods is played by a skin directly perceiving all influences of an environment. In it reactions specific to separate factors in which result there is a transformation of physical energy in biological effects develop as the general.

Special value thus get immune processes as it is proved, that the skin carries out functions both peripheral, and the central body immunogenesis. However skin arising in an immune link shifts at action balneo factors is investigated obviously insufficiently.

Changes in immune system the skin caused by physical factors, can be transferred in central neuro endocrine, and immune bodies and initiate occurrence or modulate a current of various regulating processes and system reactions in an organism. Therefore complex studying of features of influence of immune system of a skin and modulation of its activity under influence balneo factors is the major problem. It will promote disclosing of many parties of their action on an organism, working out new adequate and optimum balneo therapeutic technologies.

There is a number of the unresolved problems which decision will promote development of scientific and practical balneology. Among them it’s necessary to underline the following:

— a long-term estimation of influence hydrobalneotherapy with definition of quality of a life of patients (the proof of preventive value of these methods);

— development the forecast criteria of adequacy of a choice of methods hydrobalneotherapy with the medical, preventive and rehabilitation purposes;

— an establishment of laws «dose-effect» and optimum temperature parameters for persons with certain infringements of functional systems of an organism;

— working out of recommendations for wider use of hydrotherapy (a technique of application of fresh water, an aromatherapy) for the purpose of increase adaptation and compensatory organism possibilities;

— studying of influence of potable water of a difficult chemical compound (with a various mineralization and the maintenance of a gas phase) in connection with the developed classification of mineral waters for external application and allocation of subtypes of each kind of waters;

— development physiogenetics, that will allow to choose and predict unmistakably efficiency, in particular, and бальнеотерапии;

— working out of the differentiated approaches to definition of duration of sanatorium treatment for concrete categories of patients without damage to its efficiency;

— perfection balneo therapeutic devices;

«In a today’s stressful society balneotherapy can be used effectively not only for traditional treatment of chronic illnesses and rehabilitation, but also for preventive maintenance of diseases, for preservation and increase of level of health and creation of state of health when the body and reason are in full harmony». Uko Agishi, 1955.

Назад| Оглавление | Далее